General Terms

Global Warming Potential (GWP)
A measure of how much energy 1 tonne of a gas will absorb over a given period of time, expressed as a comparable amount of 1 tonne of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2).

Heating Degree Days (HDD)
An estimate of building heating requirements. HDD are calculated as how much colder the mean temperature of a location is than 18°C on a given day. For example, if a location experiences a mean temperature of 8°C on a certain day, there were 10 HDD that day because 18 - 8 = 10.

Source: Government of Canada Weather Glossary

Useful Energy
Energy available for use after conversion losses.

Conversion Losses
Energy lost (in the form of heat, light, etc) as energy is transformed from one system to another.

Traffic Zone
The boundary unit of geography used for modelling energy and emissions.


Emissions

Carbon dioxide equivalent
The expression of a greenhouse gas as carbon dioxide equivalency; the amount of carbon dioxide emissions that would have the same atmospheric impact as the mass of gas in question. It is obtained by multiplying the emissions of a greenhouse gas by its Global Warming Potential. For a mix of greenhouse gases, it is obtained by summing the equivalent carbon dioxide emissions of each gas. The unit of measure is called a mass of carbon dioxide equivalent (written as eCO2).

Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report


Energy Use

Energy Use Units

Petajoule
A measure of energy that is equal to 1015 (1,000,000,000,000,000) Joules (the International System of Units for energy).

Gigajoule
A measure of energy that is equal to 109 (1,000,000,000) Joules (the International System of Units for energy).


Sectors

Commercial
Energy consumed for and emissions produced by property intended to generate a profit within the city boundary.

Industrial
Energy consumed for and emissions produced by property intended for the goods-producing segment of the economy within the city boundary.

Local Energy Production
Thermal energy and electricity generation solutions at the building and neighbourhood-scale.

Residential
Energy consumed for and emissions produced by property designed for people to live in.

Transportation
Energy consumed for and emissions produced by the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another within the city boundary.

Fugitive
Energy consumed for and emissions produced by leaks or unintended uses of energy within the city boundary.

Waste
Energy consumed for and emissions produced by the waste of goods consumed by humans within the city boundary.


End Uses

Industrial Manufacturing
Energy consumed by the industrial and manufacturing sectors within the city boundary

Lighting
Energy consumed for lighting in residential and commercial buildings within the city boundary.

Local Energy Production
Thermal energy and electricity generation solutions at the building and neighbourhood-scale.

Major Appliances
Energy consumed for major appliances (i.e. stoves, fridges, washers) in residential and commercial buildings within the city boundary.

Space Cooling
Energy consumed for cooling air in residential and commercial buildings within the city boundary.

Space Heating
Energy consumed for heating air in residential and commercial buildings within the city boundary.

Transportation
Energy consumed for and emissions produced by the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another within the city boundary.

Water Heating
Energy consumed for heating water in residential and commercial buildings within the city boundary.


Transportation

Vehicle Kilometres Travelled (VKT)
A measurement of kilometres traveled by vehicles within a specified region for a specified time period.

External Inbound
Commuters whose primary residence is outside the city boundary, and travels into city.

External Outbound
Commuters whose primary residence is outside the city boundary, and travels out of city.

Internal
Commuters that reside in the city boundary and travels within the city boundary.

Active
A transportation mode that includes any form of human-powered transportation – walking, cycling, using a wheelchair, in-line skating, etc.

Personal vehicle
A transportation mode in which the commuter operates or is a passenger in a personal vehicle. Carpool passengers included.

Transit
A transportation mode in which the commuter relies on a public mass transportation service such as subway, rail, light rail, bus, etc.

Annual Person Trips
The number of personal vehicle trips a person takes within a year from origins within the city boundary.

Person Kilometers per Year
The number of personal vehicle kilometers a person takes within a year from origins within the city boundary.

Home to Work
Personal vehicle trips a person takes from home to work within the city boundary.

Home to School
Personal vehicle trips a person takes from home to school within the city boundary.

Home to Other
Personal vehicle trips a person takes from home to destinations that do not include work or school (i.e. shopping, restaurants, gym) within the city boundary.

Non Home Based
Personal vehicle trips a person takes that do not originate from the home within the city boundary.

Urban Form

Dwelling
A self-contained unit of residence such as a single family home, an apartment unit, a townhome, a condominium unit, etc.

Building Fewer than 5 Storeys
A low rise residential building with multiple dwellings that is 5 storeys or fewer.

Building More than 5 Storeys
A mid-rise to high-rise residential building with multiple dwellings that is more than 5 storeys.

Double
A semi-detached building with two or more separate dwellings or a building on a single property with more than one dwelling.

Row
A row of identical dwellings that share side walls. Also known as townhomes.

Single
A single detached dwelling.